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Microspia nell'auto del marito? Non è intercettazione abusiva

Secondo la Cassazione (sentenza n. 33499/2019) la condotta costituisce comunque interferenza illecita nella vita privata.

FONTE ALTALEX

Nessuna responsabilità penale per i detective assoldati dalla moglie gelosa se manca l'inserimento di un canale di trasmissione. 

E' quanto emerge dalla sentenza della Corte di Cassazione, sez. V penale, 24 luglio 2019, n. 33499

Il caso
Nella fattispecie, gli investigatori privati assoldati dalla moglie avevano piazzato una microspia ed un gps all'interno dell'auto del marito, con la conseguenza che la loro condotta era qualificabile solo come illecita interferenza nella vita privata e non come una intercettazione abusiva a carico del soggetto presunto infedele. La conseguenza è di notevole portata se si considera che il reato risulta punibile solo a querela di parte, mai presentata dalla parte offesa.

La decisione
E' da escludere, secondo gli ermellini, il reato di cui all'art. 617-bis c.p., in quanto manca l'illecito inserimento di un canale riservato tra soggetti diversi. Infatti, mediante l'inserimento di una microspia e di un gps nell'auto dell'uomo, i detective privati erano in grado di riferire alla donna gli spostamenti del marito ed anche le persone che egli frequentava, potendo sentire le conversazioni che avvenivano all'interno dell'abitacolo dell'automobile.

Ma si tratta di una mera intercettazione ambientale, sebbene illecita. L'art. 617-bis c.p., rappresenta una tutela anticipata alla libertà ed alla segretezza delle comunicazioni telefoniche e telegrafiche intercorrenti tra soggetti terzi. L'art. 623 c.p., volto ad evitare per quanto possibile vuoti di tutela derivante dal costante sviluppo dei mezzi tecnologici, ha comportato l'estensione dell'ambito di operatività della disposizione di cui sopra ai fatti concernenti qualunque altra trasmissione a distanza di suoni, immagini o dati.

Sebbene ne sia derivato un ampliamento delle potenzialità applicative della norma incriminatrice, la protezione fornita dalla medesima è limitata alle comunicazioni che avvengono a “distanza” tra soggetti, non potendo includersi le conversazioni tra presenti oggetto di intercettazione ambientale, a meno di non ricorrere nell'analogia in malam partem.

La Suprema Corte condivide l'orientamento giurisprudenziale dominante che nega la riconducibilità all'art. 617-bis c.p., di condotte, quali l'installazione all'interno di un'automobile di una microspia tale da intercettare solo le conversazioni intrattenute dai soggetti i quali si trovino nel veicolo (Cass. pen., Sez. V, 16 dicembre 2015, n. 4264), non idonee a comportare l'illecito inserimento in un canale di comunicazione riservato tra persone diverse, da cui l'agente sarebbe stato altrimenti escluso.

Gli imputati, quindi, sono stati prosciolti, posto che il fatto ritenuto sussistente, ovvero l'interferenza illecita nella vita privata, è procedibile esclusivamente a querela di parte e questa non era mai stata presentata dalla persona offesa.

What Are The Bugs?


The bugs (or spy bugs, spy microphones, etc.) are small electronic devices capable of transmitting the audio perceived by the microphone live, thus allowing the user to perform the so-called environmental listening.
Advantages and disadvantages of bugs compared to microrecorders.
The bugs (or spy microphones spy bugs etc.) transmitting the audio directly to the user allow to acquire information in a direct, fast and effective way but unlike the microrecorders they do not memorize the conversions listened to * and therefore the bugs require their user a considerable waste of time since not always what you want to hear is told at regular or pre-established times.
Unlike the micro-recorders, they allow a very quick playback of the recordings ** but they have the disadvantage of having to be physically recovered to allow data to be downloaded and therefore do not allow live listening to live "live".
TO SEE THE CATALOG OF AUDIO MICRO-RECORDERS CLICK HERE

* do not allow conversations to be stored unless they are combined with an audio recording system or a mobile phone with a recording system.
** It has been estimated that on average a professional audio microrecorder equipped with a voice activation system allows you to listen to the conversations of an entire day over a period of 20 minutes.
Environmental bugs and car bugs.
The bugs mentioned above are equipped with tiny, integrated light microphones capable of perceiving even the slightest sound or ambient noise.
For this reason, the professional bugs operating with a 220V electric grid, set up with special ultrasensitive microphones ideal for medium / large environments, are called environmental bugs.
On the other hand, the 12V bugs specifically designed for cars are called bugs for cars and, like the battery bugs, which you can find in our catalog, they are equipped with sophisticated AGC microphones that can automatically adjust the volume of listening environmental.
* the abbreviation AGC (Automatic Gain Control) indicates automatic gain control, a function implemented on all professional bugs in our catalog.
GSM bugs and radio bugs.
There are two main categories of bugs (or spy bugs) for listening to the environment, the first type are the bugs with radio transmission (called radio bugs or radio frequency bugs) that allow listening to the environment at a limited distance (usually between 50 and 200 meters), while the second type of bugs is the GSM bug. This type of bugs allow to carry out environmental listening at an unlimited distance and for correct operation only need a normal SIM CARD without the need for any dedicated receiver (as was the case for the most dated bugs via radio).
For these reasons, in the private sector, the GSM bugs have now supplanted radio bugs.
Other types of bugs and spy bugs
The search term "Bugs" or "Spy bug" is often used or mis-associated to indicate other categories of products, for example:
- gps bugs or GPS bugs to indicate the category of GPS locators.
- spy bugs, recording bugs, recording bugs, microrecorder bugs, audio bugs, audio bugs, audio ambient bugs or spy microrecorders to indicate the category of microrecorders.
- video bugs, video bugs, micro-camera bugs, micro-camera bugs, micro-camera bugs, hidden cameras, hidden cameras to indicate the category of micro-cameras.
- bugs for cell phones, spy cell phones, cell phone bugs, spy software, spy iphone, spy phone, samsung spy, iphone spy, samsung spy, spysoftware to indicate the category of mobile phones changed.
- wall bugs, wall bugs, directional bugs, directional bugs to indicate wall microphones and directional microphones that fall into our special microphones category.
If this is not the page for the article you were looking for click on the search term used to be redirected to the right category of products.

Bug Detectors, What Are They?


Microspy detectors (also known as bugs / bugs detectors) are devices capable of detecting any type of transmitting bug (or spy bug) such as radio bugs (wireless bugs / wi-fi bugs), GSM bugs ( umts / 3G / 4G bugs) and wireless microcameras (with analogue transmission or digital transmission via wifi network).
How to use a bug detector in the best possible way [how to find a bug] In order to make the best use of a bug detector and avoid false alarms, you need to perform some preliminary operations such as:
turn off all mobile / tablet devices in the environment or in the vehicle to be checked for the duration of the check (in order not to detect the GSM transmission of your smartphone).
turn off all Wi-Fi modems in the environment to be tested (or any device capable of generating a Wi-Fi network).
turn off all the devices with both analogue and digital wireless transmissions (eg cordless devices, wireless headphones, etc.).
It is also advisable to use some measures to stimulate the transmission of bugs such as:
keep an audio source active during the control (to stimulate the transmission of the bugs with voice activation).
use the bug detector in silent or vibration mode.
other useful tips that will be provided by our experienced staff at our offices in Rome, Milan, Brescia and Bologna to make the most of the bug detector best suited to you.
How to choose the suitable bug detector.
There are several products sold as "bug detectors", but not all of them are able to detect both audio bugs and GPS locators (gps bugs) and wireless cameras. This is because the audio bugs, GPS locators and wireless cameras work on different frequencies specific to each device and therefore the bug detectors must be adjusted to better identify each category of device.
Furthermore, depending on the use to which the bug detectors are intended they can have a more simplified or complex operation. In fact, if in most cases it is sufficient to identify the devices for interception mentioned above, in other cases it is also necessary to know the type of transmission with which they work.
For this reason, part of our catalog are also detectors of selective professional bugs that can show separately the various transmission standards (eg GSM, UMTS, Wifi etc.) and the relative field strength (signal strength expressed in dB).

Reclamation From Bug, Why Make them?


An environmental bug is nothing but a miniaturized electronic device capable of capturing and monitoring sounds and voices in any environment.
This technology was used already before the Second World War, even if at the time the devices were more cumbersome and less efficient than now. Needless to say that today's technology has evolved at unimaginable rates, so that the bugs have not only expanded their range of action, but have taken such miniaturized forms that they can be hidden anywhere. Do you know those thrillers or spy movies in which the protagonists repeatedly resort to the use of these micro-devices? It is no longer a fantasy now. The cameras are placed throughout the city, in supermarkets, in banks, in private ... Not surprisingly, the bugs are also called bedbugs. And if the bugs were also present in our house? Or in our car?
How to protect our privacy
[reclamation-environmental] In most cases, the bugs are used to "watch over" the spouse, in the case of suspicion of infidelity on his part. In that case it is difficult for a woman or a man to buy a professional technology, but it is limited to the purchase of an economic device suitable for the needs of the moment. Usually, these devices can create interference with other technologies in our family environment, such as mobile phones.
In other cases, however, it is not so "simple" to identify the presence of bugs, as they are purchased professionally and are used by skilled hands in this kind of work, perhaps to have access to the industrial secrets of some competing company.
Through the use of professional detectors specially designed to operate in this field, the environments can be reclaimed from this anti-privacy technology, identifying the radiofrequency signals generated by the bugs. Transmitters of audio or video signals (RF, UMTS, GPS and so on) that, thanks to their small size, can be hidden and hidden in any place, private or public.
The purpose of the micro-bug reclamation is precisely this: to avoid the escape of secrets or private or confidential information in the industrial field, by identifying the presence of these bugs.
Scope of a bug and various types of bedbugs
Radio frequency bugs use radio signals, their range of action is limited above all by obstacles that overlap (for example, the range of a bug placed under a car is different from the range of action of a mail in a closed room). Therefore, their range varies from 100-200 meters up to 500-1000 meters.
Lately, however, bugs have been built of almost unlimited scope, thanks to GSM technology, so technological advances are always at the forefront.
GSM technology does not use the normal audio channels, but the cellular telephone network to transmit the signal at unlimited distances and, for this reason, slowly it is going to replace the classic bug.
Another thing that differentiates the GSM bugs is their difficult individualization and this makes the task of reclamation difficult. How is it possible? This bug is activated only when it receives a call from the outside (in fact, to make it work you have to insert a SIM card inside). When the appliance does not receive calls it automatically goes into "stand-by". In itself, however, a sound source would be enough to make it light. In this way a detector placed at the center of the area to be reclaimed will be able to receive the signal of the bug.
Another type of device is the GPS tracker, which is especially useful for cars. GPS is a bug that can send the location of your car to another receiving device, highlighting the route and stops. Or the UMTS bugs, the traditional camera bugs, used for the audiovisual recording of their field of action, for this reason they are used essentially in closed places, like an apartment or a room. Some have night vision and can intercept and record at any time of the day or night.
The main remediation operations
Trying to find a bug is not easy. You can not rely on chance, trying to guess, because who uses this type of equipment knows how and where it must hide them so that they are invisible. So the risk of making a big hole in the water and giving the customer a false security is high. The methods used are many and there is not one in particular that can be defined better.
The first of all is visual recognition: simply, you have to check the premises. Some bugs, especially the cheaper ones, are usually hidden inside the most varied objects of our daily life: wall clocks, PC mouse and many

Spyphone Spy Cell Phones, We Understand What They Can Do


What is a spy cell phone? With the term "spy cell phone" or "spy phone" refers to particular mobile phones equipped with a special software that allows you to remotely control all the functions performed, through the use of another mobile phone which has a pilot or command function.
Of course, the term spy phone itself indicates that the spy cell phone is a normal cell phone with an operating system on which a software program has been installed to be controlled remotely by another mobile phone (the "pilot") designed to capture all the actions of the spy cell, without the knowledge of who is using it.
How the mobile phone works The spy cell phone uses the GSM network, like GSM bugs, and works like a normal cell phone, but being controlled remotely by the cell phone pilot and having installed a spy program internally, it is controlled by these by SMS that send to for example, commands to activate the function of listening to the environment at any distance, or to receive the whole address book or the list of calls received or made and so on.
The spy cell phone is therefore a device that performs the function of a GSM bug or even GPS if it has also implemented a satellite locator inside it. To monitor and control a spy phone is possible from another mobile phone, not just any one, but a specific one (called "pilot"), which has been programmed with specific software to control the spy-phone.
Fields of application Usually when we talk about "spy" devices we are faced with two strands of fundamental application fields: legal and illicit. Among the most common lawful applications of the spy cell phone there are the remote environmental control of, for example, their very small children, to feel if they sleep or cry without disturbing them, or the anti-theft system for a valuable or industrial vehicle, as the Spy cell phone can be located, through the BTS cells, even when for example it is indoors in a garage or shed, as long as it arrives at that place the GSM signal.
On the other hand, as regards the illicit application fields, we enter the very delicate area of telephone, environmental and IT interceptions for which the references of Italian jurisprudence, of the penal code and the constitutional ones referring to fundamental rights of freedom, of residence are valid. , privacy of individuals.
How to know if your mobile phone is a spy phone? If you think that your phone is under control, expose your problem to our team specializing in environmental remediation, telephone and computer.
Contact


What the Italian law on SPIA phones says (Spyphones)
 The law strictly prohibits the improper use of SPIA CELLULARS
How many times have you been able to listen to the TV and see a service that speaks of telephone tapping carried out by the police, or always wiretapping but not authorized and put in place to blackmail people. And who knows how many times the image of the secret agent (for example James Bond) will have flashed through his mind, spying on his enemies thanks to technological gadgets and a bit of healthy cinematographic imagination. But now these "dreams" can become reality, thanks to software that can be found at qualified stores.
 Of course it is not so simple: actually intercepting a person by phone, or peeping in the phone calls received or still being able to access the text messages sent and received is the tip of the iceberg, the problem lies in the fact that at law level these activities are prohibited unless you are part of the police or bodies set up for the occasion and especially do not have an authorization from those who are doing the investigation. The same guarantor of privacy the dott. Francesco Pizzetti on May 5, 2009 issued an interview in the TG2 costume and company where he reiterates that the sale of these spy cellphone and spy phone software is legal but the use NO as they could be used to intercept, spy, call, conversations , sms, the competent body is legislating to put order and clarity in the field of spy phones.
 When we talk about wiretapping, inevitably we are going to touch another sore button that is that of privacy, so not only is a criminal offense committed (since we are talking about criminal procedure code) but we are also going to undermine what is the privacy of every single citizen. But what if the individual citizen does this kind of initiative? It happens that if you are discovered you risk big: in fact you go to examine the current legislation (or in any case to examine some of his articles), you immediately notice that everything is protected by strict laws and




Quando registrare una conversazione è legale?


In generale, registrare una conversazione con una o più persone, all’insaputa dei partecipanti, è legale a condizione che:

ciò non avvenga nell’abitazione di uno dei soggetti registrati (ad esempio non puoi andare a casa di un amico e registrare ciò che dice o filmarlo);
ciò avvenga alla presenza di chi registra (ad esempio non puoi lasciare un registratore sul tavolo di un ristorante e poi fingere di andare al bagno per sapere cosa dicono di te).

Il registratore, insomma, è una sorta di sostituto della memoria: visto che è naturalmente lecito ricordare ciò che è stato detto, in nostra presenza, da un’altra persona nel corso di un colloquio, è anche possibile fissare questa “memoria” su un supporto materiale e immortalarla. Non c’è nulla di male né di illegale. Del resto – ha spesso ribadito la Cassazione – chi partecipa a una conversazione è consapevole di ciò che dice e, oltre ad assumersene le responsabilità, accetta anche il rischio di essere registrato.

Registrazioni audio o video sui luoghi di lavoro: sono possibili

Il luogo di lavoro è sempre stato assimilato al domicilio. Per cui si è più volte detto che è impossibile registrare una conversazione tanto in un ufficio privato quanto a casa altrui. Ma questa regola ha un’eccezione. Secondo infatti la Cassazione è legittimo registrare di nascosto i colleghi per precostituirsi un mezzo di prova contro il datore di lavoro in una possibile vertenza contro di questi (ad esempio per l’opposizione a un provvedimento disciplinare o l’impugnazione in tribunale del provvedimento stesso).


Questo significa, in una sola parola, che è più importante e superiore il diritto costituzionale alla difesa in giudizio che non il diritto (anch’esso di rango costituzionale) della privacy.

Né c’è bisogno che la causa contro l’azienda sia già in corso. Secondo infatti la Cassazione, la registrazione video o audio può essere rivolta ad acquisire le prove per un processo che si ha solo intenzione di intentare ma che non è stato ancora avviato. Questo comportamento, dunque, non può essere considerato reato, ma anzi costituisce l’esercizio di un diritto.